Thursday, June 4, 2020

Final Project It 284 Handling Difficult Customers - Free Essay Example

Final Project IT 284 Handling Difficult Customers Handling Difficult Customers Vutha Dingman Axia College of University of Phoenix May 9, 2010 IT 284 Consumers are customers that are buyer’s influenced by their children, spouse, and other household members. Each consumer make decisions for certain products or the household may make the decisions together. Customer support really has to cater to wants and needs of the long time customers. Their loyalty can be forgiving if there is a mistake or they may be more likely to complain. Listed are some of the reasons why customers become difficult when communicating technical problems. 1. Wanting a live operator but ending up in an automated telephone loop. 2. Excessive waiting times to be connected to an operator. 3. Representatives rushing callers or even faking a disconnection. 4. Incompetent Representatives, incapable of processing requests effectively. 5. Representative not actively listening to the complaint. 6. Departments n ot communicating with one another. 7. Condescending Representative using technical jargon they don’t understand. . Representatives who sounds bored and disinterested. I will address the complaints: 1) Wanting a live operator but ending up in an automated telephone loop, 2) Incompetent Representatives, incapable of processing requests. 3) Representative not actively listening to the complaint. The support specialist should follow the customer problem resolution and recovery procedures to address the significance of each of concept and overcome challenges that may arise during the resolution process. Consumer emotions The first thing that a customer hears is a message saying, â€Å"Your call is valuable to us. Please hold the line for the next available Representative. † Then†¦. they wait, and wait and wait. Finally after what seems like hours to them, they are connected with you. They are already angry with their situation and are faulting the company, now they are really angry about the wait time to get to speak with a live person. They feel that if they were really a valued customer, the wait time would be minimal. Resist the temptation to label the customer as a problem and cut out the negative thoughts. Start the recovery process with an apology after you let them vent. Smile and speak with sincerity, and dont fall into the trap that you’re angry or difficult customer is baiting you with. If you feed into the anger, you will only escalate the problem. Your words, tone, and attitude are should be empathetic. This will deflects and diffuses an angry customer. You want to make sure the customer know you are listening and taking their situation seriously. Now the customer is upset that the Representative couldn’t or didn’t answer their questions and wasted their time. Their expected all the rep to know the particulars about their product without having to put them on hold or transfer the call to someone else. If you do need to work with other departments, please inform the customer that you will personally take the matter into your own hands and will need to investigate on the issues. Reassure the customer that you are coordinating the best possible resolution, and if you need to get the assistance achieve it. A great rep always sounds friendly. Customer doesn’t like someone who sounds bored and disinterested at their problem. They want to feel that you are about their issue and are interested in resolving their issue. When you answer a customers call, please smile. Keep a positive attitude and be upbeat, they will be able to hear it in your voice. Ownership When upset or angry about a situation, a two minute wait time can feel like nothing at all, or can feel like forever. A company must learn how to influence the customer feelings about the waiting time. Representative must approach these customers with the mind set of the customer has a right to be angry, even before you know t he details. Let them vent their feelings, without passing judgment, and only interject when they start to becomes directly abusive towards you. If the customer senses that they are communicating with someone who is incapable, it will create another reason to be frustrated or angry. If you don’t have the power to solve the issue or answer the question, tell the customer that you own the problem. Let them know that you will apply your personal effort to find a solution, even if you need to ask someone else. Sounding bored or disinterest is absolutely preventable! Have your environment arranged in a way so that the telephone conversations are customer oriented, convenient, and efficient. Reduce distractions by tuning out office noise, have paper and pencil handy to take notes when necessary. Be prepared to answer the telephone by having it within easy reach, no more than an arm’s length away. Customer callers do not hear the first two words of the conversation so wh en answering the phone use buffer words. You can say something like, â€Å"Thank you for calling . . . ,† or â€Å"Good (morning or afternoon) this is. . . Don’t just say â€Å"hello† and then wait for customers to answer. Self-control When you respond with hostility, or lose your self-control, you are contributing to the escalation of the situation. You have a snide response, and then the customer is even more fired up and ups the abuse. Instead calmly interject with some empathy. Say I understand your frustration with the situation; I want us to move past this so we can fix the problem that you are calling about. Please allow me to help you. † Sometimes the technical problem is in need of more attention because it may impact other customers. You don’t want to seem like you don’t know what you are doing, so acknowledge the individual customer emotion first. Then resolve the technical issue that you can handle and address bigger issues as a more multi-department activity. Let your customers know that you are listening and you want to help. Write down notes during the conversation. When the customer is done venting, reiterate the priorities from the customer perspective. Address the emotional and technical aspects of the customer concerns. This will put you in focus on the appropriate issues and reassure the customer that you are concentrating on their priorities. Adaptation Our Country is made up of an increasing number of immigrants and transitional residents. These same immigrants were the founding Fathers of our Country. Maybe the caller is new to the English language and was put on hold for so long, or didn’t know to press a certain number for a Representative. Companies can take these complaints and adjust the systems to address the needs and accommodate multiple languages. Some companies have taken customer service to the next level and are hiring multilingual customer service providers. Having th ese systems set can prevent many of the listed complaints from being uttered again. Mistaken customers The customer is not always right, both sides know it, but they still are paying customers. Their wait time was less than a minute, but they wanted a live operator to pick up the call. To deal with these types of customers, we must learn coping and problem-solving skills to deal with our own personal feelings. Reiterate your empathy and continue to acknowledge the customer right to be angry. Takes deep breaths, smile and wait patiently for your turn to speak. Problem customers Problem customers do exist and everyone has to deal with them. They can be high maintenance, scammers, litigious, abusive, criminal or just plain bizarre. When you have one of these on the phone, the best thing to do is ignore the language and behavior and continue to follow the same procedures as with an angry customer. When they have crossed the boundary set by standards, then it is best to let the custom er know that your manager or the law department would be best to handle their situation. In the end, if there has to be compromise from one side of the conversation; let it be from the company. Great service can make customers more comfortable with a company because they do things better for them. Everyone involved wants a fair and fast solution that can be settled simultaneously. If compromising means that you are able to retain customers, then that equals to: business survival. Reference Swartzlander, A. (2004). Chapter 3, 4, 5 in Pearson Education, Inc (Ed. ), Serving Internal and External Customers (pp. 56-75). Prentice Hall.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Health Care Systems Of Israel And Australia - 915 Words

Israel and Australia both have very similar health care systems, both healthcare systems charge people through their income taxes. The health care systems consists of institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations. Australia’s and Israel’s health care system has both a public sector and private sector, However Australia has Medicare that helps subsides some of the cost that some medical procedures may cost as well as prescription medications. In both Australia and Israel they are recommended to switch to private health insurance due to the long waiting lists for surgeries and procedures. The Israeli and Australian health system can provide universal healthcare to selected countries. The Israeli healthcare system is funded primarily by taxes or income taxes, Israelis pay for health taxes ranging from 3.8% to 4.4% depending on their yearly income along with other taxes such as social security taxes. Israel’s economy is very high, and is one of the most highly ranked nations in the Arab and Middle Eastern region. It is an extremely well developed economic country considering that the country only consists of 8 million people. The country lacks a lot of natural resources and products and relies on other countries to support it on this cause, Israel’s education department is one of the merely advanced department throughout its region and competes with other countries. An example of Israel’s economy is Israel’s Dead SeaShow MoreRelatedCultural Competency And Health Care1462 Words   |  6 Pagesreciprocal relationships and partnerships, which respects for diversity and obey expectations and equity. In today’s society, cultural competency is quite important to the worldwide healthcare due to the cultural differences. In Melbourne, Australia, Monash Health is a community service in the local government area (LGA) of Monash. 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Health care spending in the United States is expected to reach about $4.6 trillion in 2021.The spending of health care costs has affected the citizens of the U.S. as well as health care facilities negatively. Americans are not capable of paying for health expenses on their own. There are some reasonable options that have been suggested as a solution to this issue, butRead MoreHealth Care Costs On Americans1134 Words   |  5 Pagesor receives health care in America. This paper can also be read and understood by anyone who is curious about the effects of health care costs on Americans. Americans Facing Rising Health Costs The U.S. has experienced a dramatic change over the last decade. Health costs have continued to rise and have become unreasonable. The spending of health care costs has affected the citizens of the U.S. as well as health care facilities negatively. 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Both boys and girls run an equal risk of having Progeria. Progeria appears to affect children of all races equally. Over the last 15 years the following countries have had reported cases - Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Canada, China, Cuba, England, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Mexico, the Netherlands, Poland, Puerto Rico, South Africa, South America, South Korea, Switzerland, Turkey, the US, Venezuela, Vietnam and Yugoslavi. Children with Progeria are born looking healthy. WhenRead MoreLegalization Of Prostitution : The United States From The Beginning Of English Settlements1542 Words   |  7 Pagestrafficking system. Many that are being trafficked are under age, not citizens of the country they are in, and abused by pimps and others on a daily basis. More than three thousand women were murdered solely because they were street prostitutes. Gary Leon Ridgway was only one of the many serial killers who targeted street walkers. In fact, Gary Leon Ridgway murdered forty-nine prostitutes in the Seattle area because he knew that no one would look for them. Because of the reasoning that no one cares forRead MoreGenetic Engineering : Genetically Modified Foods1312 Words   |  6 Pagesbe done largely by selective breeding, which is very time-consuming and more often than not, it is not very accurate of effective. Genetic engineering is extremely controversial as people feel that it is not very safe as there could be unknown health risks involved and there have been a growing number of protests against GM foods across the globe. It is feared that genetically modified plants could spread undesirable traits to non-genetically engineered food and weeds. One large environment impact

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Arizonas Laws on Immigration Essay - 1231 Words

Arizonas Laws on Immigration Works Cited Not Included In the article titled Dying to Work there is an excellent quote given by Rep. Kolbe says, â€Å"There are no two countries in the world that share a border where the economic disparities are greater than between the U.S. and Mexico.† (AZ Republic, 2002) My paper draws on the information from the â€Å"Worldwide Refugee Information: Country Report: Mexico† written in 2000 and the article titled â€Å"Dying to Work: The Arizona Republic† written in 2001. Both of these articles give numerous information about the Mexican Immigrants and refugees. I am focusing on the illegal Mexican immigrants as well as refugees that enter the U.S. through refugee status, because living in Arizona, there are†¦show more content†¦Although the USCR tries to help all the people that they possibly can, it would be impossible for them to help all the refugees that are currently in Mexico. USCR (2002) quoted that there were 432 asylum seekers filed in Mexico, which is an incr ease of over 50 percent from 2002. As Mexico remains to day to continue to be a poverty stricken country, the percentage rate will continue to increase, as will the illegal immigrants that cross the border each day to search for hope, because they are unable to obtain refugee status. For illegal immigrants, it is very dangerous for them to come across. They are risking their lives and their families’ lives in search for work. In the deserts that they cross are robbers, murders, no water and no food. The AZ Republic (2003) estimated that in a year’s time, approximately one million people will get caught trying to sneak illegally into the U.S., and over 1000 will die. According to the USCR (2002), in July, Mexico began a campaign to amplify the immigration enforcement at the southern border. The called their campaign â€Å"Plan Sur†, and it was aimed at stopping numerous illegal immigrants from stepping foot into the U.S. After September 11, hundreds more were deployed to watch the border from illegal immigrants. Also, The INS has the border wired with high-tech gizmos and practically 10,000 agents to slash the streamShow MoreRelatedArizona’s Immigration Law Essay988 Words   |  4 PagesIt is clear that illegal immi gration has gotten out of control and constringent measures need to be taken to protect the United States borders. The local Government of Arizona recently decided to take control of the situation, by passing the â€Å"Support our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act† {House Bill 2162}. This bill gives law enforcement officers and agencies the authority, to lawfully stop, detain and arrest anyone who appears to look like an illegal alien. The bill out-right condonesRead MoreA Rogerian Analysis of the Debate over Arizonas Immigration Law1493 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿A Rogerian Analysis of the Debate over Arizonas Immigration Law 1. An introduction to the problem and a demonstration that the opponents position is understood. Americas illegal immigration problem is one of the most remarkable failures of the U.S. federal government. Undocumented illegal immigrants, many in our very own neighborhoods, are able evade the reach of our nations laws and regulations with remarkable ease. This is a huge source of anxiety for many tax-paying Americans, who perceiveRead MoreArizona Immigration Law (SB 1070) Should be Abolished1589 Words   |  7 Pagesthe new law of Arizona was created. What does law means? Law is a set of rules established by a governing authority to institute and maintain orderly coexistence (Merriam Webster’s). A new law named SB 1070 has been written with hostile points that threats human rights. Thousands of illegal immigrants were force to return back to their countries. I admit that illegal immigration is a Federal Government crime, but SB 1070 is a discriminatory law against Hispanics. I believe Arizona’s Law SB 1070Read MoreArizona s Immigration Law Encourages Racial Pr ofiling897 Words   |  4 Pages Arizona’s Immigration law Encourages Racial Profiling (Rhetorical Analysis) The author Marjorie Chon uses Pathos, Logos, Ethos, and Community and Conversation in order to write a paper. The article states her credibility using Ethos in the beginning of the first paragraph so the reader will know that she is a trusted source. Logos is used at the beginning of the article to state the laws that are provided for illegal immigrants to show how strict the law enforcement is on theRead MoreImmigration Problems in the United States Essay1191 Words   |  5 PagesImmigration problems are not just a problem in Arizona but a problem throughout the United States. The definition in the Webster dictionary, an illegal immigrant or alien is a non-citizen whom has entered the United States without government permission or who has stayed beyond the termination date of the visa is consider an illegal immigrant or alien. Arizona’s newly enacted immigration law, which was meant to stem human trafficking and drug-related border violence, has been criticized by many asRea d MoreSupport Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhood Act1560 Words   |  6 Pagesanti-immigration law’s in history was heavily disputed and extremely controversial nation-wide. The conversation surrounding current United States immigration regulations and issues that are aimed to be ‘addressed’ by Arizona’s infamous SB 1070 are currently at a standstill. By changing ways in which opposing parties view the ‘issues’ of illegal immigration in the United States and the effects caused by SB 1070, there is hope for the advancement of not only Arizona’s struggle with immigration, butRead MoreEssay on Illegal Immigration and Its Effects on the United States 1334 Words   |  6 Pagesgovernment regulation on the ongoing cycle of illegal immigration. However, none of them have succeeded in doing so. It does seem to be an impossible task with thousands crossing every day and many of them fooling the U.S. by getting a working visa then never returning back home. Although this task of illegal immigration seems overwhelming the government needs to be more involved by continuing to build border walls, allowing the states to pass laws to check for citizenship if prompted to, and, if allRead MoreImmigration Reforms Domino Effect 1347 Words   |  6 Pages The actions made in today’s societies across the country not only affect those situations immediately at hand, but also those for generations to come. This paper will be delving into immigration reform in Arizona, and more specifically the negative effects that the border surge has had on the socio-economic status of the Grand Canyon state. The motivation for choosing this topic comes from the time spent personally living in Arizona for 12 years and seeing it as one of the most dynamic states havingRead MoreOur Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act Analysis1005 Words   |  5 Pagessigned the Support Our Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act (SOLESNA), or Arizona Senate Bill 1070 (S.B. 1070, as it is popularly known). The purpose of the act is â€Å"... to discourage and deter the unlawful entry and presence of aliens and economic activity by persons unlawfully present in the United States† (Senate Bill 1070, 2010). Arizona Senate Bill 1070 is considered one of the harshest anti-immigration law due to it’s enforcements. Nevertheless, it is not the first law of it’s kind. GeographicallyRead More Illegal Immigration in Arizona Essay1009 Words   |  5 Pageslonger will Arizona have to suffer from illegal immigration? Peter Katel wrote that â€Å"While illegal immigrants only make up about 5 percent of the U.S. work force, critics of the nations immigration policies say illegal immigrants take Americans jobs, threaten national security and even change the nations culture by refusing to assimilate† (Katel par. 1). We will look at how Arizona is dealing with illegal immigration. Even though illegal immigration is not a major issue in most states, Arizona is

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Education Causes Effects Essay Example For Students

Education: Causes Effects Essay Education: Causes and EffectsIn many situations, higher education separates people from their families, social backgrounds, and cultures. This often causes mixed emotions, awkward feelings, and other conflicts. Some of these conflicts are described in works such as Aria by Richard Rodriguez, and The Right to Write by Frederic Douglass. Aria comes from the biography of Richard Rodriguez, the son of two Mexican immigrants. He describes his struggle to grow up in a primarily white, English-speaking area. As a young child knowing less than fifty English words, Rodriguez began his schooling in Sacramento, California. He not only faced the obstacle of mastering the English language, but also that of fitting in socially with a classroom of wealthy white children. To Rodriguez, the English language and the Spanish language represented something different. English was the language used to communicate with outsiders. It was a tool for survival, and held no personalmeaning. Spanish, however, was the key to his comfort. Hearing spanish brought Rodriguez feelings of love, acceptance, family, and security. Throughout his life, Rodriguez had mixed feelings about his parents. They were nobodys victims, he said of his parents. Optimism and ambition led them to a house (our home) many blocks from the Mexican south side of town. We lived among gringos and only a block from the biggest, whitest houses. This reflects Rodriguezs feelings of admiration and respect towards his parents as a young boy. However, as Richard grew older, language became a real problem for him. He developed negative feelings towards his parents because of their English. He felt a sense of embarrassment around them in a social atmosphere. He says, It was troubling for me to hear my parents speak in public. Hearing them speak broken English also brought him a feeling of insecurity. It was unsettling to hear my parents struggle with English. Hearing them, Id grow nervous, my clutching trust in their protection and power weakened, said Rodriguez. The language barrier was a disadvantage for Rodriguez because it created a barrier between his home and public. He felt comfortable at home, speaking Spanish with his family, as he had his whole life. However, he became hesitant to go into public at all because of his language. He says, Id rarely leave home at all alone or without reluctance. The language barrier affected Rodriguez both emotionally and socially. As and adult, Rodriguez became an award-winning writer. Despite the emotional and social problems that Rodriguez dealt with earlier in his life, he learned to adapt and use the English language for his advantage. In The Right to Write, the situation is much different. Frederick Douglass, the son of a slave woman and white man, tells his story about learning to read. As a slave, Douglass was forbidden to read by his master. His mistress, however, was a kindhearted woman who taught him the alphabet. She started teaching him to read, but before long her personality turned hard and cold. Influenced by her husband, she no longer allowed Douglass to read. This would not stop him though. He would sneak newspapers or any type of reading material that he could get his hands on. He even turned to the poor white children of the neighborhood for help. Douglass would give them bread in return for reading lessons. Eventually, he was fully capable of reading and writing. Education opened Douglasss eyes to the wrongs of slavery and what

Sunday, April 19, 2020

Most Effective Ways To Overcome Essays Problem faced by students

Wiring essay is not an easy task. It requires lots of analysis, knowledge and understanding. To write an effective essay you must have proper grip and skills on writing. Many students find difficulty in writing an essay because they do not know the basics of essay writing. Sometimes they are not willing and have no passion to write. Most of the times they know what to writer but they do not understand how to start it. They do not have ability to pen their ideas down. Also they focus on external rewards only so that they believe on cramming rather improving their skills. To overcome the problems while writing an essay you need to take following measurements. Brainstorming: Mostly students just sit and start writing straight forwardly. They do not use to do brainstorming which is not advisable.Before starting your essay you need to collect all the ideas coming to your mind and collected from other sources. Essay writing services provide proper guidance on essay writings. These writings can be very helpful to increase your knowledge and understanding of essay.When you collect all your ideas and materials trash the unnecessary material from it to make your essay well-knit. Learn to make out line thesis statement: Mostly students start their essay easily but they do not know how to give a proper end to it. To overcome this issue you must make a thesis question for your essay. This will help you start your essay with appropriate reasoning. To remain stick to your topic you need to make a proper outline. provide compatible and highly skilled writers who can help you for making thesis statement and outline. This will make easy to write a coherent and logical essay. The outline of your essay should include; Thesis statementTitle and topicEssay structure ( introduction, main body, conclusion)Evidential support Learn steps for high quality essays: To write an effective and high quality essay you should have knowledge of basic principles and steps for writing an essay. Best Essay writing services U.S.A. provides detailed and updated material on essay writing. You can use that material to make your essay extra-ordinary. Following are the essential steps to write an essay with ease; PreparingGatheringStructuringWritingRe-checking Make it sound impressive logical: Most of the students face problem while writing an essay because they do not have proper understanding of the topic. They use unnecessary details which make their essay length and irrelevant provide professional consultant who can enhance your creative and analytical skills which would help you to write an intellectual essays. Following are the essentials for writing an impressive essay: CoherencePrecisionLogical orderPurposeful writingFlow of ideasConnection between paragraphGeneral introduction to specific conclusion Take help from different sources: The reason students face problem in writing essay that they do not know how to deliver idea and collect the information. To enhance your knowledge and vocabulary you need to take help from different sources. Professional essay writing services provide lots of authentic material on essay writing which can be very useful to have grip on essay writing.to improve your intellect for writing you can take help from; Web contentBooksFellow friend or classmateTeachersJournals and news papers Create diversity in your writing: If you are facing problem with essay writing you need to do lots of practice. You should make a habit of writing an essay on regular basis. provide highly skilled writers who provide essay on different topic. you can use those essays to enhance your writing skills and vocabulary. There should be diversity of ideas and pattern in your essay. You should learn to write on almost all kind of essays i.e. ArgumentativeAnalyticNarrative\persuasiveExpositoryDescriptive Proper structuring of essay: To make the reader to understand your idea you need to express your ideas with no confusion. There should be appropriate use of grammar and sentence making. Your essay must be error free and provide a logical presentation of ideas. All the provided material should be meaningful and authentic. You must be familiar with the proper structure of essay which include; Introduction ( consists of thesis statement. Central idea. General information)Main body ( supportive arguments, details about the topic)Conclusion (specific, sum up the topic) Use literary terms and citation: Sometimes students get succeeded to deliver their idea to the reader but they do not score well. The reason is they use to write lengthy paragraphs and complex wording. provide expert writers who can provide you a detailed list of literary devices. You can use these literary terms as a tool for best essay writing. You should try to keep your essay comprehensive and interesting. For this purpose you can use; Literary termsTransitionShort statementsCitationsQuotations Understand the purpose of writing essay: To write an essay with ease you should understand the purpose of writing essay. You need to provide logical arguments to make your essay meaningful. Use supportive and constructive ideas to make your essay extra-ordinary.

Sunday, March 15, 2020

The Portrayal of the Body as a Medium of Culture in Stanley Kubrick’s A Clockwork Orange Essays

The Portrayal of the Body as a Medium of Culture in Stanley Kubrick’s A Clockwork Orange Essays The Portrayal of the Body as a Medium of Culture in Stanley Kubrick’s A Clockwork Orange Paper The Portrayal of the Body as a Medium of Culture in Stanley Kubrick’s A Clockwork Orange Paper The clockwork metaphor has long been used as a tradition of Western science as a means of portraying a condition in which human behavior is modified to the extent that it is plausible to predict as well as control human behavior. Stanley Kubrick’s adaptation of Anthony Burgess’ novel A Clockwork Orange presents a scenario in which such a condition is enabled in society. A central message of Kubrick’s aforementioned film lies in its emphasis on the necessity to scrutinize the assumption that both science and the state may be considered as the guardians of human civilization. The movie’s story follows the escapades of Alex, a reasonably intelligent young criminal and his three gang members, Pete, Georgie, and Dim. As they drink milk with narcotics, the gang spends their evenings entertaining themselves with ‘ultra-violent’ acts. As the movie develops, one is presented with examples of these ‘ultra-violent’ acts which involve beating a homeless man, raping another gang, as well as beating and raping a woman. It is the later act which led to Alex’s imprisonment and later on involvement in a voluntary behavior modification experiment which conditioned him to associate pain with sex and violence thereby turning Alex into an individual devoid of free will and a model member of society, hence ‘a clockwork orange’. This modification of Alex’s behavior however turned him into a victim of social retribution, the experience of which led him into an attempt to commit suicide. After such an attempt, Alex was once again placed in the control of the state who decided to undo the effects of his earlier behavior modification. The movie ends with a portrayal of Alex who was once again in possession of his free will filled with thoughts of the various ways in which he may once again commit ‘ultra-violent’ acts. The movie ends with Alex menacingly stating, â€Å"I was cured all right† (Kubrick np). Stanley Kubrick’s A Clock Work Orange may thereby be seen as presenting a narrative of an individual who experiences four subject positions: Alex as a criminal, Alex as a convict, Alex as a patient, and Alex as a citizen. Through his shift from one subject position to another, Alex experiences different modes of power and at the same time different modes of subjectivity. It is interesting to note that by enabling the different shifts in power through Alex’s character, the movie was able to portray the different points in which subjectivity is shaped in an individual. In line with this, what makes Alex’s character interesting are not his physical traits but the different traits which have been ascribed upon him as a result of the constitution of his personality by the rules and norms of the different institutions that gained access and control over Alex’s body. Alex may thereby be seen as an entity who presents the film’s spectator with the different ways in which the body stands as a medium of culture as it derives its meanings from the social constructs of the body determined by its position within society. Susan Bordo, in â€Å"The Body and the Reproduction of Femininity†, emphasizes the manner in which the body becomes a ‘powerful symbolic force’. She states, â€Å"The body†¦is a powerful symbolic force, a surface on which the central rules, hierarchies, and even metaphysical commitments of culture are inscribed and thus reinforced through the concrete language of the body† (Bordo 162). Bordo’s claim regarding the body’s existence as a powerful symbolic force and a mirror of culture is based on the assumption that the body is defined by the social constructs of society. Such a definition however occurs not merely by placing emphasis on the physical property of the body but also by placing emphasis on the mental property of the body. In â€Å"Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body†, Bordo argues that the body is defined in terms of a dualistic conception of reality which perceives the body as an entity which is â€Å"something apart from the true self†¦and as undermining the best efforts of that self† (5). The body is thereby depicted as an entity composed of a physical component and a mental component. The physical component adheres to the scientific conception of the body as â€Å"a purely mechanical, biologically programmed system that can be fully quantified and (in theory) controlled† (Bordo 4). The mental component of the body, on the other hand, adheres to the conception of the body which refers to the self or an individual’s identity. According to Bordo, Western philosophy has traditionally perceived the physical component of the body as that which must necessarily be controlled by the mental component of the body (Bordo 2). The problem with such a view however is evident if one considers that the conception of the mental component of the body is based upon the physical component of the body. In the case of women, for example, this is evident in the identification of the physical component of the female body with sexuality and the mental component of the female body with irrationality. Bordo argues that this distinction between the mind and the body has pervaded the social construction of both the male and female figure and as such its â€Å"continuing historical power and pervasiveness†¦ (enables) certain cultural images and ideolog(ies) to†¦ (make) not just men but also women†¦vulnerable† (Bordo 7-8). The continuation of a dualistic conception of reality leads to the vulnerability of both men and women as it enables the proliferation of certain social constructs which identifies the male and female body with particular identities. Dualism enables the perpetuation of these identities as it emphasizes the impossibility of enabling the union between both the physical and mental components of an individual. In â€Å"We the Other Victorians†, Michel Foucault argues that this adherence to dualism is a discursive strategy of certain social groups that enables them to take control of the body. He states, The central issue, then†¦ is not to determine whether one says yes or no†¦, whether one formulates prohibitions or permissions, whether one asserts its importance or denies its effect, or whether one refines the words one uses to designate†¦; but to account for the fact that it is spoken about, to discover who does the speaking, the position and viewpoints from which they speak, the institutions which prompt people to speak about it and which store and distribute the things that are said. What is at issue†¦is the overall â€Å"discursive fact†. (Foucault 11) David Gauntlett (2002) in his discussion of Michel Foucault’s work in his book Media, Gender, and Identity, emphasizes that this characterizes the earlier phase of Foucault’s thought wherein he places emphasis on how institutions create and proliferate certain images of groups in order to enable the control of these groups. He states, â€Å"the discourses of institutions, and their formally recognized ‘experts’ work to constrain certain groups (by) limiting their opportunities by promoting certain views about them† (Gauntlett 116). In line with the importance Foucault places on the predominant discourse in society in determining the mode of power on the subject, one might state that Foucault understands the emphasis on dualism as a manifestation of society’s desire to limit the positive power of the subject by leading him to believe that his physical properties or condition determine his identity and since society perceives individual X to possess a Y identity as opposed to a Z identity, it follows that is impossible for the individual to possess a Z identity [e. g. females ought to be feminine and males ought to be masculine and hence females cannot be masculine]. In the case of Stanley Kubrick’s A Clockwork Orange, this is evident in the character of Alex mentioned above as Alex’s identity was determined by the conditions of the physical component of his body. As was mentioned in the initial part of the paper, Alex was able to experience four subject positions: Alex as a criminal, Alex as a convict, Alex as a patient, and Alex as a citizen. It is important to note that all these subject positions are determined by the actions on or upon the physical component of his body. For example, Alex’s subject position as a criminal was determined by his freedom from the constraints of the law which enabled him to commit violent actions towards others. On the other hand, Alex’s subject position as a convict and as a patient was determined by the level of control that the system possessed upon Alex’s body. Finally, Alex’s subject position as a citizen was determined by the effects of his position as a transformed body. It is important that this transition from one subject position to another mirrors Bordo emphasis on the social construction of the subject. This is apparent if one considers that Alex’s subject position was determined by the institution which has control over his body and hence the manipulation of this institution upon Alex’s physical body has led to the manipulation of the conception of Alex’s self or Alex’s identity. These changes enabled by Alex’s shift from one subject position to another is also in line with Foucault’s emphasis on the way in which discourse manifests the modes of power prevalent within society as well as the individual’s access to these modes of power. Consider for example that Alex’s transition to a citizen stands as a result of his transformation from being a subject acting with and upon others to a slave or object for others to act upon. By being submerged within the different discourses and hence different modes of power that delimit the individual’s positive freedom, Alex was turned into a body that was stripped of his initial identity that was not controlled by society and hence he has turned into a subject defined by society itself as he has been manipulated and molded in order to gain his final subject position as a citizen. Within this context, one might note that the body becomes a medium of culture as the body stands as the means through which culture controls the subject. By advocating associations between the physical and mental component of the body, society enables the control of the individual as it delineates the individual to one particular identity hence as can be seen above Alex cannot occupy the subject position of a convict and citizen at the same time. The problem with this is evident if one considers the intersectionality of identity which refers to the possibility in which an individual may have one or more characteristics of another group [e. g Alex’s subject position as a patient still enables him to occupy the subject position of a citizen]. To assume that an individual is delimited to one identity as a result of his physical properties amounts to a form of hasty generalization which fails to account for the complexity of the human being and his ability to occupy different positions within society. Bordo, Susan. Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body. Eds. Susan Bordo and Leslie Heywood. California: U of California P. , 2004. Foucault, Michel. â€Å"We the Other Victorians. † The History of Sexuality. Volume One. New York: Penguin Books, 1988. Gauntlett, David. â€Å"Michel Foucault: Discourses and Lifestyles. † Media, Gender, and Identity: An Introduction. London: Routledge, 2002. Kubrick, Stanley. A Clockwork Orange. Perf. Malcolm McDowell. Np, 1971.

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Franny by J.D. Salinger Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Franny by J.D. Salinger - Essay Example D. Salinger while making reference to appropriate texts. The paper will expound on the subject, the subtitles and the ambiguities within the story (Lutz, p. 73). In the book, the author talks about Franny and the weekend date that she has with her boyfriend from college (Slawenski, p. 48). The name of her boyfriend is Lane Coutell. Franny’s location in the book remains unclear. We only know that she arrives by train from a college that is similar to Smith and she intends to spend her weekend at a college that appears to be Princeton, watching the Yale game (Lutz, p. 99). During her journey, she is seen carrying a book with her that is called ‘The way of a Pilgrim’. The book is a Russian religious text that talks about the importance of spiritual illumination and the idea of praying continuously (Slawenski, p. 119). When Franny meets with her boyfriend Coutell, the pair goes out to lunch. Coutell takes Franny to a very fashionable hotel room and tries to create a l asting impression by telling her of how his has received a proposal to publish his latest paper on Flaubert (Lutz, p. 14). The irony of all this is that Franny appears to be upset by the news rather than be excited and jovial about it. She wonders how college education has been important to Lane and questions the worth of the friends that Lane keeps (Slawenski, p. 12). During their lunch, Franny does not eat anything but spends most of the time smoking continuously. She gets really uncomfortable and this can be seen in the sweating and feelings of faintness that she experiences. This leads her to excuse herself and head to the rest room where she cries for some time until she regains her composure. When she returns to their table, her boyfriend Lane begins to question her about the small book that she had brought with her. She responds by telling her boyfriend the name of the book in full and tells him what the story is all about, praying without ceasing. Franny goes on and on with the story and Lane appears to be bored and less interested about it. He is only concerned with the timetable of the football game and the party they had purposed to attend (Lutz, p. 103). When all this is happening, Franny faints and Lane has to tend to her. This means that the party, the football games and all other activities that had been planned for the weekend are postponed (Slawenski, p. 44). When Franny wakes up from her fainting, her boyfriend Lane goes to get a taxi and leaves Franny alone and she starts to practice the praying without ceasing that she had read about (Lutz, p. 23). The author of the text tries to release his inner emotions and thoughts about Hindu  Advaita  Vedanta and Zen Buddhism through the characters used in the book. He was popularly known for his deep interest in these eastern religious philosophies (Lutz, p.13). In a short section in the second part of the book, the author has quoted certain spiritual texts. These include the Zen koan which he ha s likened to the prayer of Jesus Christ who is the son of God (Slawenski, p. 92). When the second section of the book is being introduced, the narrator of the book, Buddy Glass, brings the debate as to whether the book is a love story or a mystical discussion. Some critics and other authors have been quoted saying that the book, Franny and Zooey, can simply be interpreted to mean a modern Zen tale whose